Gene mutations or rearrangements in the tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) family of receptor tyrosine kinases are emerging as an important driver of cancer-cell growth in a wide range of cancers. Research has shown that neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase (NTRK) genes, which encode for TRK proteins, can fuse abnormally to other genes and enhance cell signals that support tumor growth. NTRK gene fusions are found in a variety of tumor types, including soft-tissue sarcoma, salivary gland cancer, infantile fibrosarcoma, thyroid cancer, and lung cancer.
Febrile neutropenia is a serious complication of cancer chemotherapy that can require treatment delays and chemotherapy dose reductions, which compromise the efficacy of treatment. Among patients with cancer who are receiving chemotherapy, approximately 1% have febrile neutropenia. This condition affects patient morbidity and mortality and its clinical management requires significant healthcare resources.
Prostate cancer is the third most common type of cancer in the United States, after breast cancer and lung cancer. In 2018 alone, 164,690 individuals were diagnosed with prostate cancer, accounting for nearly 10% of all new cancer cases, and 29,430 deaths were attributed to the disease. Prostate cancer is most frequently diagnosed in men aged 65 to 74 years (median age, 66 years). More than 98% of patients with prostate cancer survive ≥5 years; however, the 5-year survival rate drops to 30% for patients with metastatic disease.
Following the advent of molecularly targeted agents, and more recently, immunotherapy, over the past few decades, we have witnessed dramatic changes in the treatment paradigms for many types of cancer. These advancements were driven by molecular profiling that enabled the identification of those patient populations most likely to benefit from targeted therapy and/or immunotherapy—that is, precision medicine.
There is renewed interest in MSI analysis because the MSI-H/dMMR phenotype has emerged as an actionable predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint blockade therapy in different cancer types. This review presents available evidence supporting the clinical relevance and predictive value of MSI/dMMR in cancers, including those treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and outlines the diagnostic approaches developed to assess MSI/dMMR in clinical practice.
PD-L1 expression is a rational biomarker to predict response to PD-1/PD-L1 ICI therapy, and has been studied extensively in clinical trials. A recurring theme emerging from available clinical data is that high levels of tumor cell membrane PD-L1 expression correlate with better outcomes with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade.
More recently, immunologic therapy has emerged as an important treatment option for many types of cancers, based on demonstrations of unprecedented efficacy. This radical shift in treatment has come with the recognition of the essential role of the immune system in the surveillance and eradication of neoplastic cells, particularly modulation of the immune checkpoint protein cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligand, PD-L1.
The Lynx Group is pleased to bring you the Third Annual Oncology Guide to New FDA Approvals. The goal of this Guide is to offer oncologists, pharmacists, oncology nurses, and other healthcare stakeholders a comprehensive overview of new hematology oncology drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2017. This practical tool offers a quick, yet detailed, evidence-based resource for oncology providers to guide their management of patients with cancer.
In 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 46 new drugs, a 21-year high. In addition to these impressive approvals, the first-ever 3 gene therapies were also approved. FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, MD, noted that these approvals represent “a whole new scientific paradigm for the treatment of serious diseases.”