Projected Long-Term Survival High for Patients with Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Pembrolizumab

TOP - May 2017, Vol 10, No 2 - Lung Cancer
Chase Doyle

Orlando, FL—Durability of benefit (ie, the possibility for sustained remission in patients with previously incurable disease) is already one of the hallmarks of immunotherapy. According to a recent statistical analysis, however, this durability even exceeded expectations.

Based on data from multiple KEYNOTE clinical trials, Matthew D. Hellmann, MD, Medical Oncologist, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, estimates that ≤25% of patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer who received pembrolizu­mab will achieve long-term survival. When compared with a long-term survival rate of just 3% to 4% for patients who received chemotherapy, these findings underscore the “remarkable step forward” made with immunotherapy, Dr Hellmann noted.

“We’re cautious to use these sorts of words, but these outcomes really do start to approach the concept of cure for patients with advanced cancer. These aren’t just numbers on a curve or dots on a plot; these are patients that we see in the clinic who are continuing to do well years after being given pembrolizumab,” he said.

As Dr Hellmann reported at the 2017 Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Clinical Immuno-Oncology Symposium, whereas cytotoxic chemotherapy or tyrosine inhibitors provide some meaningful anticancer responses, progression invariably occurs. With the advent of immunotherapies, however, the survival curve for patients with several types of advanced cancers has fundamentally changed.

“Using conventional modeling, in which we assume that everyone progresses, the proportion of patients with long-term survival is potentially zero. In the context of immunotherapy, however, progression and death is not necessarily inevitable, and long-term survival models must consider the possibility of a plateaued survival when estimating outcomes further out,” said Dr Hellmann.

Using medium-term survival data from KEYNOTE-001 and KEYNOTE-010 studies, in which previously treated patients with PD-L1–positive non–small-cell lung cancer were given pembrolizumab, the investigators projected the percentage of patients who would achieve long-term survival.

“Our approach was to take an initial estimate of long-term survival in patients treated in KEYNOTE-001 and then independently examine data from KEYNOTE-010 to validate the reproducibility of that estimate,” Dr Hellmann explained.

With this model, based on KEYNOTE-001 data, it was estimated that approximately 25.4% of patients receiving pembrolizumab therapy would survive long-term. Further analysis of KEYNOTE-010 cutoff data, which included 6 additional months of patient follow-up, showed a long-term survival estimate of approximately 21.5%. By contrast, docetaxel chemotherapy has an estimated long-term survival rate of 3% to 4% in the same patient population.

“The lives and the expectations of these patients has remarkably changed,” said Dr Hellmann, who emphasized that this is just the beginning of research into immunotherapy’s survival benefit.

“We’ve got a lot of work to do in understanding with precision who these people are in the tail of the curve so that we can get them the right therapy from the start,” he concluded.

Related Items
Alectinib New Standard of Care for ALK-Positive Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer
Phoebe Starr
TOP - November 2017, Vol 10, No 4 published on November 13, 2017 in Lung Cancer
Daratumumab Added to Carfilzomib, Lenalidomide, and Dexamethasone: Safe and Tolerable in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma
Chase Doyle
TOP - November 2017, Vol 10, No 4 published on November 13, 2017 in Multiple Myeloma
Osimertinib Extends Progression-Free Survival in EGFR T790M–Positive Lung Cancer with CNS Metastases Myeloma
Wayne Kuznar
TOP - November 2017, Vol 10, No 4 published on November 13, 2017 in Lung Cancer
Dacomitinib Represents Potential New Targeted Therapy for EGFR Mutation–Positive Lung Cancer
TOP - November 2017, Vol 10, No 4 published on November 13, 2017 in Lung Cancer
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines on Opioid Use for Cancer Pain
Chase Doyle
TOP - August 2017, Vol 10, No 3 published on August 1, 2017 in Conference Correspondent, HOPA 2017 Highlights
Prescription Drug Use High Among Survivors of Childhood Cancers
Chase Doyle
TOP - August 2017, Vol 10, No 3 published on August 1, 2017 in Survivorship
Shared Antigens Yield Promising Targets for Cancer Prevention
Chase Doyle
TOP - August 2017, Vol 10, No 3 published on August 1, 2017 in Immunotherapy
Maintenance Chemotherapy After Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation
Chase Doyle
TOP - August 2017, Vol 10, No 3 published on August 1, 2017 in Conference Correspondent, HOPA 2017 Highlights
Graft-versus-Host Disease: Breakthroughs on the Horizon
Chase Doyle
TOP - August 2017, Vol 10, No 3 published on August 1, 2017 in Conference Correspondent, HOPA 2017 Highlights
Basket Clinical Trials: A New Era in Cancer Treatment
Chase Doyle
TOP - August 2017, Vol 10, No 3 published on August 1, 2017 in Conference Correspondent, HOPA 2017 Highlights
Last modified: May 10, 2017